The first thing that we have to ask ourselves is: What is a Python decorator? Well, in a formal way “A decorator is the name used for a software design pattern. Decorators dynamically alter the functionality of a function, method, or class without having to directly use subclasses or change the source code of the function being decorated”, but my favourite definition is “A factory of functions”.
The second thing that we need to know is the concept of bound and unbound methods in Python. Methods in Python are objects too, so in runtime, the methods are instantiated and they are bound to a class or an instance of a class.
The best way to understand the concept is with the code:
Class Car(object): def __init__(self, engine, chassis): self.motor = engine self.chasis = chasis def get_total_weight(self, x, y): return x + y def weight(self): return self.get_total_weigth(self.engine.weight, self.chassis.weight)
The question is: is this code working? The answer is yes, but if you take a look at the get_total_weigth method, the first argument is self and we never use it inside. But what is really happening? Well, remember that the methods are objects too, so Python creates objects related to the methods and bound them to a Car instance. This is why we pass self like first argument. Suppose that car is a Car instance, then:
Out: <bound method Car.get_total_weight of <__main__.Car object at 0x7f72d7dbb750>>
This is expensive because every time that we instantiate a Car, Python must create new method objects, and we know that we don’t need the “self” reference. So the solution is to use staticmethod.
@staticmethod def get_total_weight(x, y): return x + y car.get_total_weight
Out: <function __main__.get_total_weight>
Now we see that the method is not bound to the instance. With this approach we have the following advantages:
- Python doesn’t have to instantiate a bound-method for each Car object.
- We know that the methods don’t depend on the internal object state.
- If we have a subclass, we can override the get_total_weight without overwriting the weight method.
One thing that we have to mention is that a method that is decorated with @staticmethod is callable by a class or by an instance.
REMEMBER: If a method doesn’t use the self reference, it is probably a static method.
Class methods are methods that are bound to the class instead of the instance of the class, so in the following code we can see that the get_market method receives cls as first argument.
Class Car(object): MARKET = "Onda" def __init__(self, engine, chassis): self.engine = engine self.chassis = chassis @classmethod def car_factory(cls, car_component_list): for engine, chassis in car_component_list: if engine.consumption < 6: yield cls(engine, chassis) car_component_list = [(m1, c1), (m2, c2), (m3, c3)] car_list =  for car in Car.car_factory(car_component_list): if car: car_list.append(car) Car.car_factory
Out: <bound method type.car_factory of <class '__main__.Car'>>
Class methods are used by “Factory Methods” when we need to do special operations and then return an instance of the class, and to call a method that has been decorated with staticmethod.
Abstract methods are used in inheritance, are defined in a Base Class but are not implemented. See the following example:
Class BaseCar(object): MARKET = "Onda" def __init__(self, engine, chassis): self.engine = engine self.chasis = chasis def turn_on(self): raise NotIplementedError
Any class that is inherited from Car must implement turn_on method; otherwise an exception will be raised.
One thing that you should know is that if you forget to implement the method in a subclass, an error will be raised when you try to call the method. A solution to this problem is to use the ABC module that Python provides.
import abc Class BaseCar(object): __metaclass__ = ABCMetaclass MARKET = "Onda" def __init__(self, engine, chassis): self.engine = engine self.chassis = chassis @abc.abstractmethod def turn_on(self): """ This method should be implemented by the subclass """
Now, if we try to create an instance of BaseCar we have the following error:
c = BaseCar() TypeError: Can't instantiate abstract class BaseCar with abstract methods turn_on
If you have a method and inside it you never use the self reference, probably the method should be decorated with @staticmethod.
Remember that @classmethod in general is used by ‘Factory’, and always the first argument must be a reference to the class. We use cls for it. Of course you should use the cls inside the method!!
A static method can be called by any kind of methods.
If you have inheritance and you want to overwrite a method always decorate it with @abc.abstractmethod. It avoids problems.